Sustainable Energy Transitions in Uganda: Influential Determinants of the Renewable Energy Landscape

Muhamad Mustafa Mundu1, Stephen Ndubuisi Nnamchi2 and Hussein Muhaise3

1Department of Electrical, Telecommunications and Computer Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Kampala International University, P.O. Box 20000, Kampala, Uganda,

Email:, ORCID: 0000-0003-1345-9999.

2Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Kampala International University, P.O. Box 20000, Kampala, Uganda. Email:,

ORCID: 0000-0002-6368-2913.

3Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Kampala International University, P.O. Box 20000, Kampala, Uganda. Email:, ORCID; 0000-0002-4273-7313.                                    


This comprehensive review explores Uganda’s journey towards sustainable energy transitions, emphasizing the pivotal factors influencing their evolution and acceptance. A thorough examination of the current state of Uganda’s renewable energy sector is presented, shedding light on both the driving forces propelling its growth and the formidable challenges it confronts. The paper meticulously dissects the intricate interplay between governmental policies, technological advancements, financial mechanisms, and societal awareness, illuminating the dynamic landscape within which Uganda’s sustainable energy initiatives unfold. Furthermore, an exploration of the socio-economic and environmental implications of these transitions is undertaken, recognizing their profound impact on livelihoods, economies, and the ecological equilibrium. In addition to its analytical depth, this paper proffers a set of insightful and pragmatic recommendations, articulating a strategic roadmap aimed at accelerating progress towards a more sustainable, resilient, and environmentally conscious energy future in Uganda. By synthesizing robust research with actionable guidance, this review stands as an invaluable resource for policymakers, stakeholders, and individuals with a vested interest in Uganda’s sustainable energy trajectory. It not only elucidates the current landscape but also provides a forward-looking perspective, positioning itself as a catalyst for positive change in the realm of sustainable energy.

Keywords: Sustainable Energy, Renewable Energy, Energy Transition, Uganda, Policy, Socio-Economic Impacts, Environmental Sustainability, Renewable Scenario


The global energy scenario is undergoing a transformative shift towards sustainable and renewable sources, driven by the urgent need to mitigate climate change and ensure long-term energy security [1 – 4]. Consequently, the urgent need for a sustainable energy transition is evident in a world facing challenges such as finite fossil fuel reserves, increasing greenhouse gas emissions, and rising energy demand [5, 6]. This transition is driven by various global energy scenarios, with the Paris Agreement standing out as a significant international accord. Achieving these targets requires a swift decarbonization of energy systems, emphasizing the growing importance of renewable energy sources [7, 8]. Complementing this, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) further underscore the global commitment to ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all. In this context, renewable energy emerges as a linchpin for advancing multiple SDGs, including poverty reduction, environmental sustainability, and climate action [9, 10, 11]. Moreover, the share of renewables in electricity production has been steadily increasing over the years. Renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydro, and geothermal power, have been playing an increasingly significant role in electricity generation globally [12, 13, 14]. This share in the energy mix is historically high in countries with large hydroelectricity resources. For example, the share of renewables in the power mix has risen in Europe to 43% (Table 1), and South Africa to 10.4% (Table 2) since 2010 [15]. This increase is driven by factors such as technological advancements, policy support, and growing environmental awareness [16, 17].


In conclusion, Uganda stands at the threshold of a promising era in sustainable energy transitions. The concerted efforts of the government, private sector, and various stakeholders have propelled the nation towards a more inclusive and environmentally responsible energy scenario. The strides made in harnessing renewable energy sources, particularly solar and biomass, have not only expanded access to electricity but have also created new opportunities for economic growth and improved livelihoods, especially in rural communities. However, it is imperative to acknowledge that challenges persist, ranging from economic constraints to infrastructural limitations. These hurdles call for continued dedication and innovation in policy-making, technology adoption, and community engagement. Looking forward, Uganda’s commitment to scaling up sustainable energy projects, coupled with proactive policy recommendations, will be pivotal in realizing a future where clean and reliable energy is accessible to all. Moreover, ongoing technological advancements and research priorities hold the key to unlocking even greater potential in the renewable energy sector. In essence, Uganda’s journey towards sustainable energy transitions is not only a national endeavor but also a testament to the nation’s dedication to global environmental stewardship. As the nation forges ahead, it is set to inspire and collaborate with neighboring countries, contributing to a more sustainable and resilient future for the entire East African region.


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CITE AS: Muhamad Mustafa Mundu, Stephen Ndubuisi Nnamchi and Hussein Muhaise (2024). Sustainable Energy Transitions in Uganda: Influential     Determinants of the Renewable Energy Landscape. IAA Journal of Applied Sciences 11(1):57-72.